ADLRF publications

3bill-imageThe $3 Billion Question for Australian Businesses

In 2007, the ADLRF published the report “The Three Billion Dollar Question for Australian Businesses“, the first known study in Australia to directly quantify the cost of illicit drug use to businesses.

Recommended reading

Drug Law

Barnett, R. E. (2009). Harmful Side Effects of Drug Prohibition, The. Utah L. Rev., 11.

Cohen, P. (2003). The drug prohibition church and the adventure of reformation. International Journal of Drug Policy, 14(2), 213-215.

Dolovich, S. (2009). Foreword: Incarceration American-Style. Harv. L. & Pol’y Rev., 3, 237.

Duke, S. B. (1994). Drug Prohibition: An Unnatural Disaster. Conn. L. Rev., 27, 571.

Drucker, E (2013). Drug Law, Mass Incarceration, and Public Health. OR. L. REV. 91.

Drucker, E. (2007). A plague of prisons: the epidemic of mass incarceration in America. Sydney Papers, The, 19(1), 28.

Gray, J. P. (2009). Hopelessness of Drug Prohibition, The. Chap. L. Rev., 13, 521.

Hankins, C. (2000). Substance use: time for drug law reform. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 162(12), 1693-1694.

Harp, S. (2010). Globalization of the US Black Market: Prohibition, the War on Drugs, and the Case of Mexico. NYUL Rev., 85, 1661.

Husak, D. (2009). Predicting the Future: A Bad Reason to Criminalize Drug Use. Utah L. Rev., 105.

Husak, D. (2004). Applying Ultima Ratio: A Skeptical Assessment. Ohio St. J. Crim. L., 2, 535.

Legal Information Access Centre – Drugs and the Law

Levine, H. G. (2003). Global drug prohibition: its uses and crises. International Journal of Drug Policy, 14(2), 145-153.

Levine, H. G., & Reinarman, C. (2010). The Trouble with Drink and Drugs: Why Prohibition and Criminalization Matter. Addiction, 105(5), 806-807.

Manderson, D. (2011). The unconscious law of drugs. The Drug Effect: Health, Crime and Society, 225.

Moore, L. D., & Elkavich, A. (2008). Who’s using and who’s doing time: Incarceration, the war on drugs, and public health. American journal of public health, 98(Supplement 1), S176.

Nutt, D. J., King, L. A., & Nichols, D. E. (2013). Effects of Schedule I drug laws on neuroscience research and treatment innovation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience.

Packer, H. (1968). The limits of the criminal sanction. Stanford University Press.

Reinarman, C. (1994). The social construction of drug scares. Constructions of deviance: Social power, context, and interaction, 92-105.

Reinarman, C. (2007). Policing pleasure: Food, drugs, and the politics of ingestion. Gastronomica, 7(3), 53-61.

Reinarman, C., & Levine, H. G. (2004). Crack in the rearview mirror: Deconstructing drug war mythology. Social Justice, 31(1/2 (95-96)), 182-199.

Regnier, T. (2011). Civilizing Drug Paraphernalia Policy: Preserving Our Free Speech and Due Process Rights While Protecting Children. NYUJ Legis. & Pub. Pol’y, 14, 115.

Stevens, A., & Hughes, C. (2012). A resounding success or a disastrous failure: Re-examining the interpretation of evidence on the Portuguese decriminalisation of illicit drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 31(1), 101-113.

Transform Drug Policy Foundation – After the War on Drugs: Blueprint for Regulation

Werb, D., Rowell, G., Guyatt, G., Kerr, T., Montaner, J., & Wood, E. (2011). Effect of drug law enforcement on drug market violence: A systematic review. International Journal of Drug Policy, 22(2), 87-94.

Wood, E., McKinnon, M., Strang, R., & Kendall, P. R. (2012). Improving community health and safety in Canada through evidence-based policies on illegal drugs. Open Medicine, 6(1), e35.

Westermeyer, J. (1976). The pro-heroin effects of anti-opium laws in Asia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33(9), 1135.

Yankah, E. N. (2011). A Paradox in Overcriminalization. New Criminal Law Review, 14(1), 1-34.



Husak, D. (2006). Do Marijuana Offenders Deserve Punishment?. Pot politics: marijuana and the costs of prohibition, 189.

Blumenson, E., & Nilsen, E. (2010). Liberty Lost: The Moral Case for Marijuana Law Reform. Ind. LJ, 85, 279.

Weissenborn, R., & Nutt, D. J. (2012). Popular intoxicants: what lessons can be learned from the last 40 years of alcohol and cannabis regulation?. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26(2), 213-220.

Carcieri, M. D. (2012). California’s Proposition 19: Selective Prohibition and Equal Basic Liberties. USFL Rev., 46, 689-855.

Cohen, P. (2008). The culture of the ban on cannabis: is it political laziness and lack of interest that keep this farcical blunder afloat?. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 8(2), 34-40.

Kendell, R. (2003). Cannabis condemned: the proscription of Indian hemp. Addiction, 98(2), 143-151.

Harper, S., Strumpf, E., & Kaufman, J. (2012). Do Medical Marijuana Laws Increase Marijuana Use? Replication Study and Extension. Annals of Epidemiology, 22, 207-12.

Atkinson, L., & McDonald, D. (1995). Cannabis, the Law and Social Impacts in Australia. No.: ISBN 0-642-23324-1, 6.

Kozma, L. (2011). The League of Nations and the Debate over Cannabis Prohibition. History Compass, 9(1), 61-70.

Macdonald, D., Moore, R., Norberry, J., Wardlaw, G., & Ballenden, N. (2004). Legislative options for cannabis use in Australia: Monograph no. 26.

Wodak, A. (2012). Commentary on Peters et al.(2012): Cannabis and tobacco policy correlates-why not try to reduce harm?. Addiction, 107(8), 1418.

Schreiner, A. M., & Dunn, M. E. (2012). Residual Effects of Cannabis Use on Neurocognitive Performance After Prolonged Abstinence: A Meta-Analysis. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology.



Jiggens, J. L. (2005). The cost of drug prohibition in Australia.

Loayza, N. V., & Sugawara, N. (2012). Would liberalization lead to epidemic cocaine consumption?. Applied Economics Letters, 19(14), 1405-1409.

Murphy, R. P. (2010). Lessons for the Young Economist. Ludwig von Mises Institute.

Cleveland, M. M. (2006). Economics of Illegal Drug Markets: What Happens If We Downsize the Drug War?. Drugs and society: US public policy, 173-200.

Caulkins, J. P. (2006). Cost-Benefit Analyses of Investments to Control Illicit Substance Abuse and Addiction.

Keefer, P., & Loayza, N. (2010). Innocent bystanders: developing countries and the war on drugs. World Bank Publications.

Andreas, P. (1995). Free market reform and drug market prohibition: US policies at cross-purposes in Latin America. Third World Quarterly, 16(1), 75-88.

Thornton, M. (2004). Prohibition vs. legalization: Do economists reach a conclusion on drug policy?. Econ Journal Watch, 1(1), 82-105.

Schwappach, D., Popova, S., Mohapatra, S., Patra, J., Godinho, A., & Rehm, J. (2011). Strategies for evaluating the economic value of drugs in alcohol dependence treatment. Drug and alcohol dependence.


Human Rights

Brennan, F., Carr, D. B., & Cousins, M. (2007). Pain management: a fundamental human right. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 105(1), 205-221.

Nickerson, J. W., & Attaran, A. (2012). The Inadequate Treatment of Pain: Collateral Damage from the War on Drugs. PLoS Medicine, 9(1).

Lines, R. (2011). Deliver Us from Evil?–The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 50 Years On. International Journal on Human Rights and Drug Policy, 1, 3-13.

UNODC – Drug control, crime prevention and criminal justice: A Human Rights perspective


Human Rights Watch – Global State of Pain Treatment: Access to Palliative Care as a Human Right

Mena, F., & Hobbs, D. (2010). Narcophobia: drugs prohibition and the generation of human rights abuses. Trends in organized crime, 13(1), 60-74.

Damon Barrett – Children of the Drug War: Perspectives on the impact of Drug Polices on Young people

Walsh, C. (2010). Drugs and human rights: private palliatives, sacramental freedoms and cognitive liberty. The International Journal of Human Rights, 14(3), 425-441.

Flanigan, J. (2012). Three arguments against prescription requirements. Journal of Medical Ethics, 38(10), 579-586.

Rich, B. A. (2000). An ethical analysis of the barriers to effective pain management. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 9(1), 54-70.



Pickard, H. (2012). The purpose in chronic addiction. AJOB neuroscience, 3(2), 40-49.

Kalant, H. (2009). What neurobiology cannot tell us about addiction. Addiction, 105(5), 780-789.

Gartner, C. E., Carter, A., & Partridge, B. (2012). What are the public policy implications of a neurobiological view of addiction?. Addiction, 107(7), 1199-1200.

Neil Levy – Who’s Fooling Who? Self-Deception and Addiction

Foddy, B., & Savulescu, J. (2006). Addiction and autonomy: Can addicted people consent to the prescription of their drug of addiction?. Bioethics, 20(1), 1-15.

Hiroi, N., & Agatsuma, S. (2004). Genetic susceptibility to substance dependence. Molecular psychiatry, 10(4), 336-344.

Bell, K., & Salmon, A. (2009). Pain, physical dependence and pseudoaddiction: Redefining addiction for ‘nice’people?. International Journal of Drug Policy, 20(2), 170-178.

Noble, M., Treadwell, J. R., Tregear, S. J., Coates, V. H., Wiffen, P. J., Akafomo, C., & Schoelles, K. M. (2010). Long-term opioid management for chronic noncancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 1(1).

Sobell, L. C. (2007). The phenomenon of self-change: Overview and key issues. Promoting Self-Change From Addictive Behaviors, 1-30.

Bruce K. Alexander – The Myth of Drug-Induced Addiction

Price, R. K., Risk, N. K., & Spitznagel, E. L. (2001). Remission from drug abuse over a 25-year period: patterns of remission and treatment use. American Journal of Public Health, 91(7), 1107.

Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., & Davis, D. H. (1975). Narcotic use in Southeast Asia and afterward: An interview study of 898 Vietnam returnees. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32(8), 955.

Drucker, E. (1999). From Morphine to Methadone: maintenance drugs in the treatment of opiate addiction. Harm Reduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 27-45.

Klingemann, H. K. H. (2004). Natural recovery from alcohol problems. The Essential Handbook of Treatment and Prevention of Alcohol Problems, 161.

Shedler, J., & Block, J. (1990). Adolescent drug use and psychological health: A longitudinal inquiry. American Psychologist, 45(5), 612.

Cohen, P. (2009). Die nackte Herrscherin. Die moderne Neurowissenschaft und das Konzept der Abhängigkeit. Wiener Zeitschrift für Suchtforschung, Jg. 32, Nr. 3/4, Seite 61-70.


Harm Reduction

Dr Alex Wodak AM – Demand Reduction and Harm Reduction

Ferri, M., Davoli, M., & Perucci, C. A. (2011). Heroin maintenance for chronic heroin-dependent individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 12.


Drug Testing

McDonald, D. (2009). The policy context of roadside drug testing. Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety, 23, 37-43.

Pidd, K., & Roche, A. M. (2011). Workplace Drug Testing: Evidence and issues. National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction (NCETA), Flinders University, Adelaide.

Prichard, J., Matthews, A., Bruno, R., & Rayment, K. (2010). Detouring Civil Liberties-Drug-Driving Laws in Australia. Griffith L. Rev., 19, 330.

Miller, R. L. (1996). Drug warriors and their prey: From police power to police state. Praeger Pub Text.

Warren, S., & Wray‐Bliss, E. (2009). Workforce drug testing: a critique and reframing. New technology, work and employment, 24(2), 163-176.


Drug Courts and Drug Treatment Programs

Drug Policy Alliance (2011). Drug courts are not the answer: Toward a health-centered approach to drug use. New York: Drug Policy Alliance.

Packer, H. (1968). The limits of the criminal sanction. Stanford University Press.

Feeley, M. M., & Simon, J. (1992). The New Penology: Notes on the Emerging Strategy of Corrections and Its Implications. Criminology, 30, 449.

Kaye, K. (2012). Rehabilitating the ‘drugs lifestyle’: Criminal justice, social control, and the cultivation of agency. Ethnography.